Literature Review

With the commercial marketplace getting more and more crowded every day, it is getting harder to forge a connection with the target audience. People see adverts everywhere they look – they are ubiquitous, whether on buses, posters on walls or on the internet. We may choose to overlook or even ignore them, now we see them as a merged part of the landscape and no longer forms of promotional communication. The audience is now more fragmented with the introduction of the internet and TV packages like Sky or Virgin, as audiences are spread out over 300 channels, instead of the original 5 channels that were available less than 15 years ago. Adding this together means it is becoming harder for advertisers to make their work stand out, this is where technology comes in. With the help of the internet, consumers now have a voice about what they think of brands or adverts, be it about their services or opinions on the brand, people listen to them, which can help form their view on the brand too. It used to be a one way conversation between consumers and brands; brands told consumers about their product, but consumers didn’t get to respond without having to call or e-mail or write a letter. Now brands are trying to create a two-way system to advertise, using technology to encourage customers to actively participate and interact with them on their campaigns to help shape their company.

The use of social media and touch screen adverts is becoming more and more popular; social media allowing people to actually talk to the brand via ‘Facebook’ fan page for companies. Dell are one company who have benefitted from social media after it helped turn their image around from their previous stance against social media, which turned out so badly they were given the nickname “Dell Hell”.

Technology is only getting more and more advanced and it won’t be long before adverts solely use technology. Some are trying to push the boundaries even further than simple digital screens.

Although the subject of advertising is a vast one, there are many resources that could be used to help define this dissertation; it had to be a selective choice when it came to choosing them. Books on advertising in general are in numerous libraries around the UK, but only a few were found which included sections about guerrilla marketing and technology as they are still relevant today in the industry. The few books chosen for the research are dated from 2002 to present as the topic is so new. When choosing the resources the title and the contents played a large part in deciding as well as the year of publication, the history of the author was also a big factor, making sure they had worked in the advertising industry in the past so they knew what they were talking about. ‘Creative Advertising’ by Mario Pricken (2002) was the oldest book chosen, which looked to be a promising source of research linked to the title of this dissertation, it aimed to explain the secrets behind creating an interesting and creative advert including over 200 examples of advertising but failed to deliver any that were of help to the dissertation. ‘The Advertised Mind’ by Erik du Plessis (2005) takes an in-depth look into how the mind portrays advertising, how it works and what the brain does when viewing advertising. The findings in this book were of some help, backing up a few of the ideas the author of the dissertation already had about the topic, especially that the world is over saturated and it is getting increasingly harder to stand out from other adverts. The book included graphs which were helpful in showing the explanations in a more visual manner including ones showing the results of surveys of such topics as advertising recall from participants. ‘Advertising is Dead: Long Live Advertising!’ by Tom Himpe and Will Collin (2006) was one of the most helpful books used, it also backed up current ideas about the topic but also gave a more in depth view into different sections of the new advertising sector including, proximity, exclusivity, unpredictability and interaction, all main parts of technology in advertising. The authors also use different ways of explaining the problems with current advertising communication, comparing the existing atmosphere of advertising to a traffic jam and to a menu. ‘Guerrilla Advertising’ by Gavin Lucas and Michael Dorrian (2006) is noticeably the most relevant to guerrilla marketing; it holds numerous examples of successful guerrilla adverts done by a large range of companies including Nike.  Although this book doesn’t include many examples that use technology in their campaign it helped get the dissertation from the starting topic that was chosen to the final question. It incorporates many different interesting cases of adverts that would stand out from the traditional advertisements we still see today. The foreword to the book was written by Ty Montague, chief creative officer at JWT New York, like the authors of ‘Advertising is Dead: Long Live Advertising!’ he also has an unusual metaphor for the problems with the sector, associating it with the transatlantic shipping business in the early 20th century.  ‘Advertising Now. Print’ edited by Julius Wiedeman (2006) is part of a series spanning the best of print, online and TV advertising. Although the subject is not about technology, the book included essays written by major designers on topics from print perspective to running an agency. These helped gather opinions of designers about the obstacles traditional advertising has now, to see whether they worked with the theory of this dissertation or against, especially as they are in the industry. ’I Am Not This Book PG: Interactive Volume 10’, editor A Carpio (2007) also had proved to be a helpful book, although having read through it, it contained mostly websites and microsites and not the technology and level of interactivity that this dissertation is aimed at. ‘This is Advertising’ by Eliza Williams (2010) is the most recent book found on this topic and was also one of the most helpful as it had the most recent examples of advertisements for large companies such as BMW and Sony, including ones using technology like GPS software. It also included interviews with artists in the industry which helped to gain many varied opinions from people working in the industry today.

In addition to the considerable amount of books on advertising there are also a large number of websites and magazines about the topic.

When choosing the resources for websites the most important aspect was the information given, as many authors expressed their views on the subject of problems and the future. The main aspect of some sections of the research (including augmented reality and digital out of home) are from companies who make them. It was aimed to use the most respectable companies, so the information gathered would be correct. Magazines have been used to learn about new advances in the market and media, the main one being Marketing magazine, which includes news about different companies, their new campaigns and also had helpful articles about augmented reality.

Having looked through the different articles and books, their lack of information about ‘technology’ advertising has made the field seem smaller, but more relevant than any other topic that could have been chosen. It is constantly evolving and there is always something new to discover even during the short period of research undertaken for this dissertation.

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